Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles

* Indicates student-authored paper

Westphal, N. S.C Sanchez, G. H. Haug, H. Cheng, L.R. Edwards, T. Schneider, K.M. Cobb, C.D. Charles, A continuous record of Central Tropical Pacific Climate since the mid 19th century reconstructed from Fanning and Palmyra Island corals: a case study in coral data reanalysis, Submitted.

Shelby A. Ellis*, K.M. Cobb, J.W. Moerman, J.W. Partin, A.L. Bennett, J. Malang, H. Gerstner, A.A. Tuen, Cave dripwaters capture the 2015-2016 El Niño event in Northern Borneo, Submitted.

Dee, S.G., K.M. Cobb, J. Emile-Geay, T. R. Ault, R. L. Edwards, H. Cheng, Multi-century fossil corals reveal large thresholds for aerosol forcing impacts on the tropical Pacific, Submitted.

Meehl, G.A. H. Teng, J.H.Y. Richter, J.C. Fyfe, M.H. England, V. Nieves, C. Ummenhofer, D. Thompson, K.M. Cobb, W. Han, N.S. Lovenduski, H. Kim, K. Pegion, D. Smith, B.P. Kirtman, S-P. Xie, A. Capotondi, Y. Kushnir, A.C. Subramanian, M.G. Donat, F. Doblas-Reyes, S. Sanchez, A. Scaife, W.J. Merryfield, M.E. Mann, L. Sun, Initialized Earth system prediction from subseasonal to decadal timescales, Submitted.

Hernandez A., C. Martin-Puertas, P. Moffa-Sánchez, E. Moreno-Chamarro, P. Ortega, S. Blockley, K.M. Cobb, L. Comas Bru, Santiago Giralt, H. Goosse, J. Luterbacher, B. Martrat, R. Muscheler, A. Parnell, S. Pla-Rabes, J. Sjolte, A. A. Scaife, D. Swingedouw, E. Wise, G. Xu, Modes of climate variability: synthesis and review of proxy-based reconstructions through the Holocene, Submitted.

Emile-Geay, J., K.M. Cobb, M. Elliott, J.E. Cole, F. Zhu, Paleoclimate constraints on ENSO, AGU Monograph, In press.

Grothe, P.M.*, K.M. Cobb, G. Liguori, E. Di Lorenzo, A. Capotondi, Y. Lu, H. Cheng, R.L. Edwards, J.R. Southon, G.M. Santos, D.M. Deocampo, J. Lynch-Stieglitz, T. Chen, H.R. Sayani, K. Townsend, M. Hagos, G. O’Connor, D.M. Thompson, L.T. Toth, J.L. Conroy, A.L. Moore. Evidence for intensification of El Niño-Southern Oscillation over the late 20th century, doi:10.1029/2019GL083906, in press.

Munksgaard, N.C. et al., Tropical daily observations of stable isotope compositions in rainfall and calculated stratiform rainfall fractions, Scientific Reports, doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-50973-9, 2019.

Claar, D.C., K.M. Cobb, J.K. Baum, In situ and remotely-sensed temperature comparisons on a Central Pacific atoll, Coral Reefs, doi: 10.1007/s00338-019-01850-4, 2019.

Khider, D, J. Emile-Geay, et al., PaCTS 1.0: A crowdsourced reporting standard for paleoclimate data, Paleoceanography, doi: 10.1029/2019PA003632, 2019.

Sanchez-Murillo, R., A.M. Duran-Quesada, G. Esquivel-Hernandez, D. Rojas-Cantillano, C. Birkel, K. Welsh, M. Sanchez-Lull, C.M. Alonso-Hernandez, D. Tetzlaff, C. Soulsby, J. Boll, K.M. Cobb, N. Kurita, Hurricane isotope anatomy and rainfall variations in a climate change hotspot of the tropics, Nature Communications, doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-12062-3, 2019.

Sayani, H.R.*, K.M. Cobb, K. DeLong, N.T. Hitt, E.R.M. Druffel, Intercolony d18O and Sr/Ca variability among Porites spp. corals at Palmyra Atoll: Towards more robust coral-based estimates of climate, G-cubed, doi: 10.1029/2019GC008420, 2019.

Liu, Y., W. Cai, C. Sun, H. Song, K.M. Cobb, J. Li, S.W. Leavitt, Z. An, W. Zhou, L. Wu, Q. Cai, R. Liu, P. Cherubinu, U. Buentgen, Y. Song, G. Wang, Y. Lei, L. Yan, Q. Li, Y. Ma, C. Fang, J. Sun, X. Li, Anthropogenic aerosols cause recent pronounced weakening of Asian Summer Monsoon relative to last four centuries, Geophysical Research Letters, doi: 10,1029/2019GL082497, 2019.

Konecky, B.L., D.C. Noone, K.M. Cobb, The influence of competing hydroclimate processes on stable water isotope ratios in tropical rainfall, doi: 10.1029/2018GL080188, 2019.

Timmermann, A., S.I. An, J.S. Kug, F.F. Jin, W. Cai, A. Capotondi, K.M. Cobb, M. Lengaigne, M.J. McPhaden, M. Stuecker, K. Stein, A. Wittenberg, K.S. Yun, et al. El Niño-Southern Oscillation complexity, Nature. doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0252-6, 2018.

Rudd, M. et al., Climate research priorities for policy-makers, practitioners, and scientists in Georgia, USA, Environmental Management Vol 62, pp 190-209, doi: 10.1007/s00267-018-1051-4, 2018.

Stevenson, S., B. Powell, K.M. Cobb, J. Nusbaumer, M. Merrifield, D. Noone, 20th century seawater d18O dynamics and implications for coral-based climate reconstructions, Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, doi: 10.1029/2017PA003304, 2018.

Chen T., K.M. Cobb, G. Roff, J. Zhao, H. Yang, M. Hu, and K. Zhao, Coral‐Derived Western Pacific Tropical Sea Surface Temperatures During the Last Millennium, Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1002/2018GL077619, 2018.

Lu, Z., Z. Liu, J. Zhu, and K.M. Cobb, A Review of the Paleo El Niño-Southern Oscillation, Atmosphere, doi:10.3390/atmos9040130, 2018.

Martin, N.J., J.L. Conroy, D. Noone, K.M. Cobb, B.L. Konecky, and S. Rea, Seasonal and ENSO influences on the stable isotopic composition of Galapagos precipitation, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, doi:10.1002/2017JD027380, 2018.

PAGES Hydro2k Consortium, Comparing proxy and model estimates of hydroclimate variability and change over the Common Era, Cliamte of the Past, doi:10.5194/cp-13-1851-2017, 2017.

Carilli, E.C., A.C. Hartmann, S.F. Heron, J.M. Pandolfi, K.M. Cobb, H.R. Sayani, R.B. Dunbar, and S.A. Sandin, Porites coral response to an oceanographic and human impact gradient in the Line Islands, Limnology and Oceanography, doi:10.1002/lno.10670, 2017.

Pausata, F.S.R., Q. Zhang, F. Muschitiello, Z. Lu, L. Chafik, E.M. Niedermeyer, J.C. Stager, K.M. Cobb, and Z. Liu, Greening of the Sahara suppressed ENSO activity during the mid-Holocene, Nature Communications, doi:10.1038/ncomms16020, 2017.

Liu, Y., K.M. Cobb, H. Song, Q. Li, C. Li, T. Nakatsuka, Z. An, W. Zhou, Q. Cai, J. Li, S.W. Leavitt, C. Sun, R. Mei, C. Shen, M. Chan, J. Sun, L.Yan, Y. Lei, Y. Ma, X. Li, D. Chen, and H.W. Linderholm, Recent enhancement of central Pacific El Nino variability relative to last eight centuries, Nature Communications, doi:10.1038/ncomms15386, 2017.

Conroy, J.L., D.M. Thompson, K.M. Cobb, D. Noone, S. Rea, A.N. Legrande, Spatiotemporal variability in the δ18O‐salinity relationship of seawater across the tropical Pacific Ocean, Paleoceanography, doi:10.1002/lno.10670, 2017.

Newman, M., M. A. Alexander, T. R. Ault, K. M. Cobb, C. Deser, E. Di Lorenzo, N. J. Mantua, A. J. Miller, S. Minobe, H. Nakamura, N. Schneider, D. J. Vimont, A. S. Phillips, J. D. Scott and C. A. Smith, The Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Revisited, Journal of Climate, doi:10.1175/jcli-d-15-0508.1, 2016.

Carolin, S.*, K.M. Cobb, J.F. Adkins, J. Lynch-Stieglitz, J.W. Moerman, S. Lejau, J. Malang, B. Clark, A.A. Tuen, Northern Borneo stalagmite records reveal West Pacific hydroclimate across MIS 5 and 6, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2016.01.028, 2016.

Grothe, P.M.*, K.M. Cobb, S. Bush, C.D. Charles, H. Cheng, R.L. Edwards, G. Santos, J. Southon, A comparison of U/Th and rapid-screen 14C dates from Line Island fossil corals, G-cubed, doi:10.1002/2015GC005893, 2016.

Wang, X.T., D.M. Sigman, A.L. Cohen, D.J. Sinclair, R.M. Sherrell, K.M. Cobb, D.V. Erler, J. Stolarski, M.K. Kitahara, and H. Ren, Influence of open ocean nitrogen supply on the skeletal d15N of modern shallow-water scleractinian corals, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2016.02.032, 2016.

Chen, S., S.S. Hoffmann, D.C. Lund, K.M. Cobb, J. Emile-Geay, J.F. Adkins, A high-resolution speleothem record of western equatorial Pacific rainfall: Implications for Holocene ENSO evolution, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2016.02.050, 2016.

Conroy, J.L.*, D. Noone, K.M. Cobb, J.W. Moerman, B.L. Konecky, Paired stable isotopologues in precipitation and vapor: A case study of the amount effect within western tropical Pacific storms, JGR-Atmospheres, doi:10.1002/2015JD023844, 2016.

Chikamoto, M.O., A. Timmermann, M. Yoshimori, F. Lehner, A. Laurian, A. Abe-Ouchi, A. Mouchet, F. Joos, K.M. Cobb, Intensification of tropical Pacific biological productivity due to volcanic eruptions, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi: 10.1002/2015GL067359, 2016.

Stevenson, S.*, B. Powell, M. Merrifield, K.M. Cobb, J. Nusbaumer, D. Noone, Characterizing seawater oxygen isotopic variability in a regional ocean modeling framework: implications for coral proxy records, Paleoceanography, doi: 10.1002/2015PA002824, 2015.

Emile-Geay, J., K.M. Cobb, M. Carre, P. Braconnot, J. Leloup, Y. Zhou, S.P. Harrison, T. Correge, M. Collins, R. Driscoll, M. Elliot, H.V. McGregor, B. Schneider, A. Tudhope. Holocene constraints on tropical Pacific dynamics, Nature Geoscience doi:10.1038/ngeo2608, 2015.

Meckler, A.N., A. Affolter, Y.V. Dublyansky, Y. Kruger, N. Vogel, J.F. Adkins, S.M. Bernasconi, S. Carolin, K.M. Cobb, M. Frenz, R. Kipfer, M. Leuenberger, J.W. Moerman, C. Spotl, D. Fleitmann, Glacial-interglacial temperature change in the tropical West Pacific: A comparison of stalagmite-based paleo-thermometers, Quaternary Science Research doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2015.06.015, 2015.

Cai, W., A. Santoso, G. Wang, S.W. Yeh, S.I An, K.M. Cobb, M. Collins, E. Guilyardi, F.F. Jin, J.S. Kug, M. Lengaigne, M.J. McPhaden, K. Takahashi, A. Timmermann, G. Vecchi, M. Watanabe, L. Wu, ENSO and greenhouse warming, Nature Climate Change, doi: 10.1038/nclimate2743, 2015.

Karamperidou, C., P. DiNezio, A. Timmermann, F.F. Jin, K.M. Cobb, The response of ENSO flavors to mid-Holocene climate: implications for proxy interpretation, Paleoceanography, doi:10.1002/2014PA002742, 2015.

Toth, L.T., R.B. Aronson, K.M. Cobb, H. Cheng, R.L. Edwards, H.R. Sayani*, P.M. Grothe*, Climatic and biotic thresholds of coral reef shutdown, Nature Climate Change, doi:10.1038/2015nclimate2541, 2015.

Moerman, J.W.*, K.M. Cobb, J. Malang, S. Lejau, B. Clark, A. Tuen, Transformation of ENSO- related rainwater to dripwater d18O variability by vadose water mixing, Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1002/2014GL061696, 2014.

Liu, Z., Z., Lu, X. Wen, B. Otto-Bleisner, A. Timmerman, K.M. Cobb, Evolution and forcing mechanisms of El Nino over the last 21,000 years. Nature doi:10.1038/nature13963, 2014.

Conroy, J.L.*, K.M. Cobb, J. Lynch-Stieglitz, P. Polissar, Constraints on the salinity-oxygen isotope relationship in the central tropical Pacific Ocean, Marine Chemistry doi: 10.1016/j.marchem.2014.02.001, 2014.

Comboul, M., Emile-Geay, J., Evans, M.N., Mirnateghi, N., K.M. Cobb, D.M. Thompson, A probabilistic model of chronological errors in layer-counted climate proxies: applications to annually-banded coral archives, Climate of the Past Discussions doi:10.5194/cp-10-825-2014, 2014.

Marchitto, T.M., W.B. Curry, J. Lynch-Stieglitz, S.P. Bryan, K.M. Cobb, D.C. Lund, Improved oxygen isotope temperature calibrations for cosmopolitan benthic foraminifera. Geochim. Cosmo. Acta., doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2013.12.034, 2014.

Anderson, B.T., J.C. Furtado, K.M. Cobb, E. Di Lorenzo, Extra-tropical forcing of El Nino/Southern Oscillation asymmetry, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi: 10.1002/grl.50951, 2013.

Hathorne, E.C., et al., Inter-laboratory study for coral Sr/Ca and other element/Ca ratio measurements, Paleoceanography, doi: 10.1002/ggge.20230, 2013.

LaVigne, M., I.S. Nurhati*, K.M. Cobb, H.V. McGregor, D. Sinclair, R.M. Sherrell, Systematic ENSO-driven nutrient variability recorded by central equatorial Pacific corals. Geophys. Res. Lett., doi: 10.1002/grl.50765, 2013.

Partin, J.W.*, K.M. Cobb, J.F. Adkins, B. Clark, Trace element and carbon isotopic variations in cave dripwaters and stalagmites from northern Borneo. G-cubed, doi: 10.1002/ggge.20215, 2013.

Carolin, S.*, K.M. Cobb, J.F. Adkins, B. Clark, A. Tuen. Varied response of western tropical Pacific hydrology to abrupt climate changes. Science doi: 10.1126/science.1233797, 2013.

Conroy, J.L.*, K.M. Cobb, D. Noone. Model-data comparisons of precipitation isotope variability across the tropical Pacific in the SWING2 climate model simulations. JGR-Atmospheres doi: 10.1002/jgrd.50412, 2013.

Moerman, J.W.*, K.M. Cobb, J.F. Adkins, H. Sodemann, B. Clark, A. Tuen, Dirunal to interannual rainfall oxygen isotope variations in northern Borneo driven by regional hydrology. EPSL doi:  10.1016/J.EPSL.2013.03.014, 2013.

Cobb, K.M., N. Westphal, H. Sayani*, E. Di Lorenzo, H. Cheng, R.L. Edwards, C.D. Charles, Highly variable El Nino-Southern Oscillation throughout the Holocene, Science DOI: 10.1126/science.1228246, 2013.

Emile-Geay, J.*, K.M. Cobb, M.E. Mann, A. Wittenberg, Estimating tropical Pacific SST variability over the last millennium; Part 1: Methodology and validation. 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00510.1, 2012.

Emile-Geay, J.*, K.M. Cobb, M.E. Mann, A. Wittenberg, Estimating tropical Pacific SST variability over the last millennium; Part 2: Reconstructions and uncertainties. 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00511.1, 2012.

Meckler, A., M. Clarkson, K.M. Cobb, J. Eiler, H. Sodemann, J.F. Adkins. Interglacial hydroclimate in the tropical West Pacific through the late Pleistocene, Science 336: 1301-1304, 2012.

Maibach, E., A. Leiserowitz, S. Cobb, M. Shank, K.M. Cobb, J. Gulledge, “The legacy of ‘Climategate’: revitalizing or undermining climate science and policy?” WIREs Climate Change 3(3): 289-295, 2012.

Gomez, B., L. Carter, K.M. Cobb, A.R. Orpin, M.J. Page, N.A. Trustrum, A.S. Palmer, ENSO/SAM interactions during the middle and late Holocene. Holocene doi:10.1177/0959683611405241, 2011.

Sayani, H.*, K.M. Cobb, A. Cohen, E. Crawford, L.K. Zaunbrecher, I.S. Nurhati, Diagenetic effects on the morphology and geochemistry of modern and young fossil coral skeletons, Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 75: 6361-6373, 2011.

Nurhati, I.*, K.M. Cobb, E. Di Lorenzo, Decadal-scale SST and salinity variations in the central tropical Pacific: signatures of natural and anthropogenic climate change. Journal of Climate doi: 10.1175/2011JCLI3852.1, 2011.

Graham, N.E., C.M. Ammann, D. Fleitmann, K.M. Cobb, and J. Luterbacher, Support for a global climate reorganization during the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Climate Dynamics doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0914-z, 2010.

Zaunbrecher, L.K.*, K.M. Cobb, J.W. Beck, C.D. Charles, E.R.M. Druffel, R.G. Fairbanks, S. Griffin, H. Sayani, Coral records of central tropical Pacific radiocarbon variability during the last millennium , Paleoceanography 25, PA4212, doi:10.1029/2009PA001788, 2010.

Di Lorenzo, E., K.M. Cobb, N. Schneider, J.C. Furtado, M.A. Alexander, Central Pacific El Nino and decadal climate change in the North Pacific. Nature Geoscience, doi10.1038/ngeo984, 2010.

LaVigne, M., K.A. Matthews, A.G. Grottoli, E. Anagnastou, K.M. Cobb, R.M. Sherell, Calibration of coral skeleton P/Ca with a local seawater phosphate record: inter-colony reproducibility and potential for global application , Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74(4): 1282-1293, 2010.

Nurhati, I.S.*, Cobb, K.M., Charles, C.D., Dunbar, R.B. Late 20th century warming and freshening trend in the central tropical Pacific, Geophysical Research Letters doi:10.1029/2009GL040270, 2009.

Jones, P.D. et al., High-resolution paleoclimatology of the last millennium: a review of current status and future prospects. Holocene 19(1): 3-49, 2009.

Furtado, J.C.*, Di Lorenzo, E., Cobb, K.M., Bracco, A. Paleoclimate reconstructions of tropical sea surface temperatures from precipitation proxies: methods, uncertainties, and non-stationarity. Journal of Climate 22: 1104-1123, 2009.

Di Lorenzo, E., Schneider, N., Cobb, K.M., Chhak, K., Franks, P.J., Miller, A.J., Bograd, S.J., Arango, H., Curchister, E., Powell, T.M., Riviere, P. North Pacific gyre oscillation controls salinity, nutrients, and Chl-a. doi:10.1029/2007GL032838, Geophysical Research Letters, 2008.

Partin, J.W.*,K.M. Cobb, J.F. Adkins, B. Clark, D.P. Fernandez. Millennial-scale trends in west Pacific warm pool hydrology since the Last Glacial Maximum. Nature 449: 452-455, 2007.

Cobb, K.M., B. Clark , J.W. Partin, J.F. Adkins. Regional-scale climate influences on temporal variations in rainwater and cave dripwater oxygen isotopes in northern Borneo. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 263: 207-220, 2007.

Graham, N.E., Hughes, M.K., Ammann, C., Cobb, K.M., Hoerling, M.P., Kennett, D.J., Kennett, J.P., Rein, B., Stott, L., Wigand, P.E., Xu, T., Tropical Pacific-Mid-latitude teleconnections during medieval times, Climatic Change 81(1-2): 241-285, 2007.

Cobb, K.M., C.D. Charles, R.L. Edwards, H. Cheng, M. Kastner. El Nino-Southern Oscillation and tropical Pacific climate during the last millennium. Nature 424: 271-276, 2003.

Cobb, K.M., C.D. Charles, R.L. Edwards, H. Cheng, M. Kastner. U/Th-dating living and young fossil corals from the central tropical Pacific. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 210(1-2): 91-103, 2003.

Charles, C.D., K.M. Cobb, M.D. Moore, R.G. Fairbanks. Monsoon-tropical ocean interaction in a network of coral records spanning the 20th century. Marine Geology 201(1-3): 207-222, 2003.

Paytan, A, S. Mearon, K.M. Cobb, M. Kastner. Origin of barite deposits: Sr and S isotope characterization. Geology 30(8): 747-750, 2002.

Cobb, K.M. Coral records of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation and tropical Pacific climate over the last millennium. Doctoral dissertation, Univ. of California, San Diego, 165pp., 2002.

Cobb, K.M., D.E. Hunter, C.D. Charles. A central tropical Pacific coral demonstrates Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic decadal climate connections. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28(11): 2209-2212, 2001.


Research Presentations Back to top


Outreach Presentations Back to top

If Rocks Could Talk. Creative Morning, 2015.

The Science of Global Warming and its Implications. (1 hour) Oceanography class lecture, October 12, 2012.

PopTech Science Fellows Talk. (5 min) Camden, Maine, October 24, 2010. See the video here, complete with 26-week twins in utero!

Communicating (Paleo)Climate Science. (40 min) La Selva, Costa Rica, May 8, 2010.

As the world warms: coral records of climate change. (40 min) MACNA XX talk, Sept 7, 2008.

The Science of Global Warming and its Implications. (15 min) EPA Earth Week talk, April 16, 2008.

The Facts and Fiction of Climate Change. (45 min) Paideia Middle School, April 15, 2008.

Fact and Fiction of Global Warming. (15 min) Atlanta Kiwanis meeting, August 21, 2007.

The Science of Global Warming. (45 min) Reasons to Believe meeting, Jan 25, 2007.

Fact and Fiction in Climate Change Science. (15 min) Westminster High School, Jan 19, 2007.

Studying Climate with Corals. (45 min) Westminster Junior High, Jan 19, 2007.